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          當前位置 -> 方管知識- 分析電焊大口徑方管時對人體有哪些危害? 發布時間:(2019/1/29)

        分析電焊大口徑方管時對人體有哪些危害?


        大口徑方管電焊作業的健康危害因素很多,養家糊口掙錢的前提下,我們還要更多預防關愛身體健康,那么今天為大家講解一下電焊具體有哪些危害 .大口徑方管電弧焊接時,焊條中的焊芯、藥皮和金屬母材在電弧高溫下熔化、蒸發、氧化、凝集,產生大量金屬氧化物及其他物質的煙塵,長期吸入可引起焊工塵肺。電焊工塵肺一般發生的密閉、通風不良的作業條件下,發病工齡平均為18a左右。肺通氣功能測定表明接觸電塵可引起電焊工一定程度的肺通氣功能損傷,電焊載FVC1.0、FEV1.0%、MMF、V5050、VP2525、PEFR等肺通氣功能均明顯降低;吸煙因素與接塵因素對電焊工的肺通氣功能可能產生協同作用;電焊工的肺通氣操作有隨接塵工齡的延長而加重的趨勢。
        There are many health hazards in large caliber square pipe welding. On the premise of making a living and earning money, we still need to take more care of our health. Today, we will explain the specific hazards of electric welding. In large caliber square pipe arc welding, the welding cores, coating and metal base materials in the electrode melt, evaporate, oxidize and agglomerate at high arc temperature, resulting in a large number of metal oxidation. Long-term inhalation of fumes and other substances can cause welder pneumoconiosis. The average length of service for welder pneumoconiosis is about 18 years under the closed and poorly ventilated working conditions. The pulmonary ventilation function test showed that exposure to electro-dust could cause a certain degree of pulmonary ventilation function damage in welders. The pulmonary ventilation function of welders loaded with FVC1.0, FEV1.0%, MMF, V5050, VP2525 and PEFR were significantly reduced. Smoking and dust exposure factors may have synergistic effects on the pulmonary ventilation function of welders. The pulmonary ventilation operation of welders tended to aggravate with the extension of the duration of exposure to dust.
        (2)錳中毒
        (2) Manganese poisoning
        各種焊件和焊條中均有數量不等的錳,一般焊芯中的含錳量很低,只有0.3%~0.6%左右。為了提高機械強度、耐磨、搞腐蝕等性能,使用含錳條時,含錳可高達23%。在通風不良場所如船艙、鍋爐或密閉容器內施焊,長期吸入含錳的煙塵可發生錳中毒,可檢出血錳、尿錳升高,神經系統功能改變,發錳測定亦可作為錳中毒早期篩檢指標。
        Manganese is found in all kinds of welding parts and electrodes. Generally, the manganese content in the core is very low, only about 0.3%-0.6%. In order to improve mechanical strength, wear resistance and corrosion resistance, manganese content can be up to 23% when using manganese bar. Manganese poisoning can occur when welding in poorly ventilated places such as cabins, boilers or closed containers. Manganese poisoning can occur when smoke and dust containing manganese are inhaled for a long time. Manganese elevation in blood and urine can be detected. Changes in nervous system function can also be detected. Manganese determination can also be used as an early screening index for manganese poisoning.
        (3)電焊煙熱
        (3) welding fume heat
        電焊煙熱也稱焊工熱,是金屬煙熱的一種,由吸入金屬氧化物所致的以驟起體溫升高和外周血白細胞計數增多為主要表現的全身性疾病,常在接金屬氣氧化物煙后6~12h起發病,有頭暈、乏力、胸悶、氣急、肌肉關節酸痛,以后發熱,白細胞增多,重者在畏寒、寒顫。
        Welding fume heat, also known as welder heat, is a kind of metal fume heat. It is a systemic disease caused by inhalation of metal oxides, characterized by sudden rise of body temperature and increase of peripheral blood white blood cell count. It often occurs 6 to 12 hours after exposure to metal oxide fumes. It has dizziness, fatigue, chest tightness, shortness of breath, soreness of muscles and joints, later fever, increase of white blood cells, and severe people are afraid of cold and shivering. This is the case.
        大口徑方管
        Large caliber square pipe
        (4)對眼及皮膚的影響
        (4) Effect on eyes and skin
        紫外線(UVR)和紅外線(IFR)對眼及皮膚的操作是電焊作業職業損害的一個重要方面。電焊工眼部癥狀明顯增多常有報道,表現為電光性眼炎、慢性瞼緣炎、結膜炎、晶體混濁等,且慢性臉緣炎、結膜炎患病率有隨工齡增加而增設的趨勢。過量UVR暴露的主要損害為光敏性角膜炎,電焊工白內障與紅外線接觸有關。國外最近的研究表明,工人接觸過量UVR會有發生非黑色素細胞皮膚癌和其他諸如眼惡性黑色素瘤等慢性疾病的危險。
        The operation of ultraviolet (UVR) and infrared (IFR) on eyes and skin is an important aspect of occupational damage in welding operation. It is often reported that the ocular symptoms of welders increase markedly, such as electro-optic ophthalmitis, chronic blepharitis, conjunctivitis, lens opacity, etc. The prevalence of chronic facial and conjunctivitis increases with the increase of working years. The main damage of excessive UVR exposure is photosensitive keratitis, and cataract in welders is related to infrared exposure. Recent studies abroad have shown that workers exposed to excessive UVR are at risk of developing non-melanocytic skin cancer and other chronic diseases such as malignant melanoma of the eye.
        (5)對生殖系統的影響
        (5) Effects on reproductive system
        生殖毒性的結局意義重大,故近10年來國內外開展了一些關于電焊作業生殖毒性的研究,主要涉及男工精液質量,女工生殖結局及損害機制。研究表明:電女工月經的經量增加、周期縮短、經期延長、白帶增加發病率高于對照組,自然流產、早產、痛經、經量均較對照組高。錳中毒男工精液外觀均勻灰白色,較正常,平均液化時間比對照組延長。檢驗結果證明,錳中毒男工平均1次射精量、精子總數、精子存活率及活動精子均比對照組下降,錳中毒男工精子畸形率明顯高于對照組。認為金屬錳能夠影響男工生精系統,對精子的發育有直接毒作用,并能殺傷精子,從而引起男性精質量的改變。國外也有報道電焊作業工作性激素分泌改變,精子質量下降,但對子代的性別比例沒有影響。
        The outcome of reproductive toxicity is of great significance. Therefore, in the past 10 years, some studies on reproductive toxicity of electric welding have been carried out at home and abroad, mainly involving the quality of semen, reproductive outcome and damage mechanism of female workers. The results showed that the incidence of increased menstruation, shortened cycle, prolonged menstruation and increased leucorrhea was higher than that of the control group, and the incidence of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, dysmenorrhea and menstrual volume were higher than those of the control group. The semen appearance of male workers with manganese poisoning was even grey and white, and the average liquefaction time was longer than that of the control group. The results showed that the average ejaculation volume, total sperm count, sperm survival rate and motile sperm of male workers with manganese poisoning were lower than those of the control group, and the sperm malformation rate of male workers with manganese poisoning was significantly higher than that of the control group. It is believed that manganese can affect the spermatogenic system of male workers, have direct toxic effects on sperm development, and kill sperm, thus causing changes in the quality of male sperm. There are also reports of changes in sex hormone secretion and sperm quality in welding operations abroad, but there is no effect on the sex ratio of offspring.
        (6)對內臟的影響
        (6) Visceral effects
        通過B超過檢查探討電焊對作業工人肝脾的影響。結果電焊作業組工作左肝長、厚,右肝斜厚及脾厚均高于對照組,并有顯著性差異。電焊作業工人肝脾存在一定損害,且隨工齡延長有加重趨勢。國外有報道,胰腺內分泌腫瘤在電焊工中發生的危險度也明顯高于正常人群。
        The effect of electric welding on the liver and spleen of workers was studied by B-mode ultrasonography. Results The length and thickness of left liver, oblique thickness of right liver and spleen in welding group were higher than those in control group, and there were significant differences. The liver and spleen of welded workers were damaged to some extent, and the damage tended to aggravate with the prolongation of service life. It has been reported abroad that the risk of pancreatic endocrine tumors in welders is also significantly higher than that in normal people. 標簽:
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